Plastic pipework is used for the conveyance of drinking water, waste water, chemicals, heating fluid and cooling fluids, foodstuffs, ultra-pure liquids, slurries, gases, compressed air and vacuum system applications. Plastic pipe systems fulfil a wide variety of service requirements. Product standards for plastics pipe systems are prepared within the standards committee known as CEN/TC155.
These requirements are precisely described in a complete set of European Product Standards for each application alongside their specific characteristics. For example: Conveyance of drinking water: Hygienic requirements Conveyance of gas: Highest Safety requirements Plastic pipes for radiant heating and floor heating: Temperature resistance over decades Sewer applications: High chemical resistance. Plastic pipes are perfectly capable of fulfilling the specific requirement for each application.
They do so with a high level of performance over a long lifetime and with reliability and safety. The key factor for success is achieved by maintaining consistently high quality levels.
For plastic pipe products, these levels are closely defined by the different standards.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_pipework
At the same time the hydraulic assistance can apply the owners of private houses, in which there have been some failures.
Depending on the type of failure, they can order the execution of hydraulic works in normal mode, or call the emergency hydraulic.
Such hydraulic ambulance is able to reach a flooded home, even during the weekend.While minor work will be done by appointment convenient for the homeowner term.
This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality.Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households.
In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was commonly used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards. Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts rarely poisoned people.
Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself.What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.
Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure.
About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants. Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittings, in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions between dissimilar metals (see galvanic cell).Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pipe.